Main Components of Solar PV Panels

Last Updated: March 15, 2020

A solar panel system consists of many components. Every component has its functionality. First Solar modules produce DC power then we convert it into AC power. A single solar cell will produce a little amount of energy but we install them many in a setup. When solar cells produce energy together they produce a gigantic amount of energy. Solar cells are not the only compulsory part of the solar panels system. As we know producing direct current (DC ) is not enough, we just can charge our batteries and a variety of electric devices. For powering our households we need alternating current (AC). For that purpose, we would need an inverter. So yes, producing usable energy we need many elements like wires and meters too. When we need store extra power we then use batteries. We will be discussing the main components of solar PV panels and systems.

You can produce some megawatts to hundreds of megawatts depends on the size of the system. The more plates system comprises, the more power will be produced. We have discussed in the above paragraph how different components are producing usable energy. Even today’s solar panels systems are modular and advanced that they provide complete monitoring and even you can control the flow. Solar power system comprises of solar panels, Electrical connections between solar panels, inverter, Wires. Batteries, Electrical meter, Overcurrent and surge protection devices, Power processing equipment, Output power lines Charge controller, etc. Cooling and cleaning matter too. We will discuss some of them too

Main Components of Solar PV Panels

Solar cells:

Solar panels produce DC energy using sunlight. They take light and convert it into DC. Solar cells are the runner of the solar panels system. You can call it the core of the system because whenever light falls on them, they produce energy. We further convert that energy into usable energy so we can power our residential purposes. We have an article regarding solar panels too if you want to learn more about it, you can visit our blogs.

Charge Controller:

The charge controller controls the flow of electricity. We can manage the flow of electricity between solar cells and batteries. Using a charge controller we can make sure that the battery is charged well. We can prevent our batteries from overcharging or less charging. We can save our worthy batteries from damage. So yes, the charge controller is necessary.


We studied that whenever light falls on panels, they produce power. Sometimes we don’t need an excessive amount of energy so we want to store them so we can use them later in case of need and emergency. So we don’t want the production to stop, we need batteries to store energy. We have blogs regarding batteries how can you use them more efficiently and make them long-lasting. We can use stored energy at nights or in case of cloudy weather. You can take some steps to make them more productive.


We use inverters for converting DC into AC, solar inverters do the same thing. Solar inverters convert panels produced DC  or battery stored energy into AC, so we can use them to run our residential and commercial purposes. Using inverters costs us some loss of energy but it is free and renewable so there is no problem in losing a small amount. Generally, inverters use to be very efficient. We have blogs regarding inverters too, you can visit. Inverters are an important part as we get AC. So there is work of solar panels system if inverters are not available.

Electric meter:

The electric meter helps us to measure the flow of electricity. We enhance our electric with net metering capabilities. It measures the direction of current flow too. The extra energy produced is sent to the grid in exchange for credits. When at night, production gets decreased we pull energy from the grid. Net electric meter counts the difference.

DC & AC Disconnect:

We have to set up disconnections for safety purposes. Normally the solar panels system has two disconnects, AC and DC disconnects. These both are manual switches. DC disconnect does not allow DC among modules to reach solar inverter. AC disconnect detaches the inverter from the electrical grid. This also protects us from technical problems. You can say they cut power when we do any action.